Posted by: wasaa | June 22, 2008

ICT for National Development


Information and Communication Technology has become a vital player in the national development of modern society.

Methods of gathering, processing and dissemination of information have dramatically changed in the modern era with the advent of ICT.

ICT has an impact on the





aspects of society

ICT has contributed to increase productivity of goods and services relevant to





and almost all other sectors in Sri Lanka

ICT in the Health Sector

E-channeling Research and Innovation

Medical testing & reporting


Maintenance of Medical History Records

In house management

Remote surgery ICT is used in education under




ICT for learning

Online courses/exams

Huge collection of subject related electronic materials and methodologies(Lessons, Tutorials, simulations etc.)

Learning Management System(LMS)

Educational fora, video conferencing,

CAL(Computer Assisted Learning)

School net

ICT for teaching

Hypermedia tools Simulation, animation, modeling, audio and video

Huge Collection of Subject Related Materials (Lessons, Tutorials etc.)

Modern Learning / Teaching Methodologies

School Management Systems

Web sites related to Education Management

ICT in Agriculture

Introduces modern machinery and equipment

Provides information on seeds that maximize harvest and preservation of products

Provides awareness in the field of modern Agriculture Fertilizers Pesticides

Provides information on modern techniques in horticulture and in agro technology

Research on farming, animal husbandry

Virtual/competitive markets for agricultural products

ICT in Industry

Provides information on modern tools, equipment, machinery

Provides software on designing and modeling

Provides know how on the use of new techniques in various industries including self employment E.g. hair dressing, beauty culture and apparel

Provides facilities for advertising and marketing

Facilitates office automated systems

Electronic processing saves energy and time

Increases productivity, efficiency and accuracy

Minimizes paper work

Provides on-line jobs

Facilitates tele-commuting

Provides infrastructure facilities for call centers

ICT in Banking Sector


Credit Cards

Inter Bank Money Transfer

On-Line banking (e-banking)

Image Processing Cheque Clearing Systems

Money grams Etc.

ICT in Insurance Sector

On the Spot Claims

Medical coverage using electronic cards

ICT in Share Market

Provides information on current foreign exchanges

Provides facility to deal with the share market

Issues in the use of ICT





Health & safety

Social Issues

Digital divide is the division of people according to the accessibility to ICT Resources. There is a gap between those who can access ICT resources easily and those who can not access.

Ethical Issues




Unauthorized access etc.

Legal Issues


Violation of Intellectual Property Rights, Copyright, Patent

Security Issues

Hardware Protection

Computer must be protected from outside threats

Software Protection

Programs must be protected from various threats

Hardware protection

Your computer should be equipped with

A UPS(Uninterrupted Power Supplier) to avoid risk of sudden power failure and fluctuations.

Surge protection safeguard against lightening and thunder.

Stabilizer to control voltage.

Environmental factors to protect your computer

Your computer should be kept in a

dust free,

Dry (moisture free),

Smoke free environment.

Logical Security

The software and the data in your computer can be protected by



Malicious codes

The expression “malicious code” has been used by analysts to describe the category to which Virus ,Worm ,Trojan Horse falls

Computer Viruses

A program or piece of code that is loaded onto your computer without your knowledge and runs against your wishes.

All computer viruses are manmade. A computer virus attaches itself to a program or file so that it can spread from one computer to another, leaving infections as it travels. Much like human viruses, computer viruses can range in severity. Boot Sector Virus

File Virus

Macro Virus

Multipartite Virus

Polymorphic Virus

Stealth Virus

Boot Sector Virus


replaces or implants itself in the boot sector—an area of the hard drive (or any other disk) accessed when you first turn on your computer. This kind of virus can prevent you from being able to boot your hard disk.


File Virus


infects applications. These executables then spread the virus by infecting associated documents and other applications whenever they’re opened or run.

Macro Virus


Written using a simplified macro programming language, these viruses affect Microsoft Office applications

A document infected with a macro virus generally modifies a pre-existing, commonly used command (such as Save) to trigger its payload upon execution of that command. A document infected with a macro virus generally modifies a pre-existing, commonly used command (such as Save) to trigger its payload upon execution of that command.

Types of computer viruses

Multipartite Virus


infects both files and the boot sector–a double shot that can re-infect your system dozens of times before it’s caught.

Polymorphic Virus


changes code whenever it passes to another machine; in theory these viruses should be more difficult for antivirus scanners to detect, but in practice they’re usually not that well written.

Stealth Virus


hides its presence by making an infected file not appear infected, but doesn’t usually stand up to antivirus software.


Worms spread from computer to computer, A worm takes advantage of file or information transport features on your system, which allows it to travel unaided. The biggest danger with a worm is its capability to replicate itself on your system

A Trojan Horse

It will appear to be useful software but will actually do damage once installed or run on your computer. When a Trojan is activated the results can vary.

Some Trojans are designed to be more annoying than malicious (like changing your desktop, adding silly active desktop icons)

they can cause serious damage by deleting files and destroying information on your system.

Precautions to Protect the computer systems

Avoid infected disks and flash drives.

Avoid downloading infected executable file.

Be careful when opening e-mails with unfamiliar addresses.

Use the latest version of an anti virus program and run it regularly.

Anti virus program

A utility that searches storage devices for viruses and removes any that are found. Scanning software looks for a virus in one of two ways

If it’s a known virus it is removed from your system.

In the case of new viruses it quarantines (isolates) the questionable program.


Some popular anti virus software




PC cillin




A firewall is a system that prevents unauthorized use and access to your computer. A firewall can be either hardware or software.The most popular firewall choice is a software firewall.

Firewall software

Spy ware

A general term for a program that secretly monitors your actions. While they are sometimes evil, like a remote control program used by a hacker, software companies have been known to use spy ware to gather data about customers.

Health and Safety Issues

Ergonomics & health issues

Repetitive Stress Injuries

Eye Strains

Electro-Magnetic Field

(EMF) exposure

To avoid Repetitive Stress Injuries

The keyboard should be at elbow height, and at a distance and angle that allow you to keep your wrists straight. If your chair doesn’t have arms, use a pillow to support your arms. Adjust your chair so that your feet are flat on the ground and your hips are slightly higher than your knees.Keep your feet flat on the floor. Don’t slouch(bend).

Keep your head in a “neutral” position. Relieve neck strain by looking back over your shoulder while sitting up straight. Hold for 10 seconds, then slowly turn and look the other way. Relax shoulders by rolling them backwards and forwards.Reduce muscle tension in your hands by spreading your fingers wide apart. Hold, and then make a tight fist

To avoid Eye Strains

Your head should be about 18 – 30 inches from the monitor. Blink frequently so your eyes don’t get dry. Clean the screen every once in a while to remove dust that has become one with your screen due to static electricity. Refocus your eyes every ten minutes or so by looking away from the computer and briefly focusing on an object at least 20 feet away.


Take frequent breaks away from the computer

Sit at arms length from the System and the Monitor

Use a flat panel display



  1. If your computer has been accessing the Internet unprotected it is infected. Spyware has surpassed viruses as the #1 threat to identity theft and without protection your Internet activities are never private.

  2. Hello Wasantha,

    A nice pice of work, has good collection of topics to include. I found this page while looking for information for a worksop for teachers regarding the contribution of ICT towards National development. Thanks.

    Wish u all the best.

    • Thank you sir,
      Let’s do something for the children

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